Research and current profile of Iranian production of Damask rose (Rosa damascenaMill.).
Haghighi, M., A. Tehranifar, A. Nikbakht and M. Kafi. 2008. Research and current profile of Iranian production of Damask rose (Rosa damascenaMill.). ActaHorticulturea. 769: 449-455
Damask rose, the national flower of Iran, is native to the Middle East. It has a long history; commercial distilleries existed in 1612 in Shiraz, Fars. It is one of the most popular plants in Iran. This plant grows both naturally and in cultivation in many parts of Iran as it is very resistant to drought conditions. The major production areas in Iran are Kashan, Fars, and Azerbaijan. The major products of damask rose in Iran are rose water, rose oil and rose bud. Harvesting is done mostly by hand in May-June. The yield range is 2-7 tons/ha. Distillation and production of rose water is mostly traditional but there are also some industrial distilleries. Rose water is used mostly in religious ceremonies and the food industry, although it is also used in traditional Iranian medicine along with rose hip which is rich in vitamin C. Rose oil is exported for use in the perfume industry. This paper discusses aspects of research, and topics related to cultivation and products of Damask rose in Iran.